The Middle East is a geographical and cultural region located primarily in western Asia, but also in parts of northern Africa and southeastern Europe.
Egypt in Africa also borders the Mediterranean and is sometimes considered as part of the Middle East, while Turkey and Cyprus literally connect Europe to Asia and oscillate between being called European and Middle Eastern. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, all located just northeast of Turkey, are at times associated with the Middle East, Europe, Asia, or as their own separate region.
Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Oman border these waters, with Iraq and Jordan connecting them to the western part of the region. At the center of the Middle East rests the Persian Gulf, cutting into the region and giving it its hook-like shape.
The eastern and northern borders of the Middle East are somewhat difficult to define. There are also several unrecognized or partially recognized states within the Middle East. Palestine, which is made up of the Gaza Strip and West Bank regions in and around Israel, declared its independence in and is currently recognized as independent by countries, though it is not an official member of the United Nations and is not considered to be its own countries by every G-8 nation except Russia.
Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and South Ossetia are all located within the Caucasus region around Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia and all declared their independence during the s, with limited recognition internationally.
Northern Cyprus declared its independence in but is only recognized as a sovereign state within the UN by Turkey, with every other member considering it as simply part of Cyprus. Some borders within the Middle East are similarly difficult to define as a result of territorial disputes between countries within the region.
Some examples include the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is administered by Iran by claimed by the United Arab Emirates, the Golan Heights plateau, which was part of Syria until it was occupied and annexed by Israel during the Six-Day War, and the region of Kurdistan, which is officially a part of northern Iraq but also has an autonomous status. The majority of the Middle East region is characterized by a warm desert climate. Weather in this climate is very high during the summer and can reach dangerous levels, with parts of Iraq and Iran having recorded feel-like temperatures of over degrees Fahrenheit 71 degrees Celsius.
Average temperatures during the summer usually rest at around degrees Fahrenheit 49 degrees Celsiuswhile the winters are somewhat milder. This climate also has very little rainfall, resulting in large desert regions.
The northern regions of the Middle East in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia are closer to a steppe climate, with colder winters but still very little precipitation. The Syrian Desert, which also stretches into Jordan, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia, combines both traditional desert and steppe geography, while the Arabian Desert around Yemen, Oman, Jordan, Iraq, and the Persian Gulf contains more of the rolling sand dunes which often characterize desert imagery.
The Sahara Desert, which stretches across northern Africa and which is perhaps the best-known desert in the world, reaches into the Middle East by way of Egypt. Despite the proliferation of deserts within the region, the Middle East also has several seas, gulfs, and rivers. The massive Tigris and Euphrates rivers begin in the mountains of eastern Turkey, flowing through Syria and Iraq out into the Persian Gulf. Using the most inclusive possible definition of the region as per the outlines listed previously, the total landmass of the Middle East is roughly 3.Middle East and North Africa.
The Palestinians and Israelis accepted the basic outlines of the plan shortly after it was formally introduced by President Bush in June However, there has been limited progress toward its goal: a permanent two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Both sides are required to take immediate steps to end violence and create the conditions for a lasting peace. As first steps, Israel must immediately dismantle what are called settlement "outposts," extensions of Israeli colonies built in the Palestinian territories, and Palestinian leaders must immediately curb terrorism and take steps toward a democratic, accountable government.
It remains the baseline for Palestinian-Israeli peace negotiations, even though the specific dates in the plan--which suggested the creation of a provisional Palestinian state by the end of no longer apply. Instead, it leaves such "final status" issues open to subsequent negotiations. As a result, some experts consider the road map more of a ceasefire agreement or general framework than a specific blueprint for peace.
It was drafted by the U. State Department, based on a speech President Bush gave in June that laid out a vision of Israeli and Palestinian states living in peace.
It was then modified and endorsed by the group known as the Quartet--representatives of the European Union, Russia, the United Nations, and the United States--that was set up to work on Middle East peace. It lays out a three-phase process that, according to its preamble, will "bring an end to the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories that began in " and create "an independent, democratic Palestinian state living side-by-side in peace and security with Israel and its other neighbors.
According to international law, all refugees have a right to return to their place of origin. But if all the Palestinian refugees who claim to come from Israel--estimated to be about 3.
The current population of Israeli is 6. Experts say that, in some ways, it is much the same. Like the Oslo Accordswhich collapsed in without being implemented, the road map sets incremental steps on a path toward Middle East peace.
Both documents are frameworks for negotiations, not set agreements. But there are important differences that give some experts hope that the road map could fare better than the Oslo process. In the road map, both sides will agree at the outset on the goal of a Palestinian state. Oslo did not endorse a final settlement, leaving it open to negotiation. Although the plan does set out a suggested timetable--peace by the end of it is also "performance-based, which means that it will move forward only when the Israelis and Palestinians are judged to have met the benchmarks.
The quartet--or, if the Israelis have their way, the United States--will judge when each goal is met, according to criteria that are not yet specified.
BMW Road Map Middle East Route 2020
It also calls for progress toward comprehensive peace agreements between Israel and Lebanon, and Israel and Syria. Foreign Policy. Book by Philip H. Gordon October 6, Middle East Program. The Flawed U. Effort to Revive Iran Sanctions. Scheffer September 22, Barkey September 21, Election Blog Post by James M. Lindsay October 2, The Water's Edge.There was a time when regular oil changes and a new set of tires once in a while was all the routine maintenance a vehicle needed. But to keep a modern, iDrive-toting BMW at its best, there's a little more to it.
Whether updating your iDrive software or doing a BMW map download to the factory navigation system, keeping your BMW's iDrive up-to-date should be a regular task, just like maintaining any other part of your vehicle. In fact, BMW recommend updating your navigation system's maps twice a year, or annually at the very least.
To check the map version in your BMW, go to your iDrive navigation view, open the settings menu and scroll down to Navigation system version. You will see the region, map version and year of your current map. If it's more than a year old, it's time to update. Part of the reason is the fact that roads are always changing. New roads are being built, old roads are being closed or rerouted, two-way streets are being turned into one-way streets.
The last thing you want your BMW GPS map to do is send you down a street that hasn't existed for five years, or let you spend an hour weaving through an unfamiliar town when there's a shiny new bypass that could cut your journey time in half. Thousands of miles of new roads are added as part of the BMW iDrive map update every year, so updating your maps means your navigation system is going to work a lot better.
But BMW is also working hard to improve its map data. Earlier versions of the BMW navigation system map update can include mistakes even Google Maps has a few streets that exist in principle, but in reality are just empty fieldsand each subsequent map version is going to iron out more of these issues.
What's more, a huge number of points of interest are added to the BMW road map each year, including restaurants, gas stations and attractions.
If you're in an unfamiliar area and want to stop off for a bite to eat, having the latest maps on your iDrive will make it easier to use the interactive map to find out what options you have around you. BMW usually releases up to 3 new versions per year and recommends performing a BMW map update every six months, or annually at the very least.
The frequency of new releases strongly depends on the head unit as well as the country. In some regions new map updates are not even released every year so even the newer navigation systems may have to wait.
You can easily check the latest update for your BMW on our website - type in your VIN on the BMW map update page and you will get a list of regions available for your iDrive with years and numbers that stand for the quarter the update was released in.Full Stack Developer Roadmap
How to check your BMW map version? Go to your iDrive navigation view, open the settings menu and scroll down to Navigation system version. At BimmerTech you can purchase a one-time update or go for extended coverage with subsequent updates. You will need to contact us with your VIN and order number, and we will take care of it. One more reason to keep your maps up-to-date is to get the latest speed limit information, which can be displayed on your instrument cluster or HUD if your vehicle is equipped with it.
It takes an hour to fit, and also requires a remote BMW coding session done by a BimmerTech technician. The upgrade removes the need for expensive cameras as it uses the updated map info to show the maximum permissible speed on each stretch of road. As the information comes entirely from the nav data, this product is only supported in areas where BMW's maps include speed limit information.
By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our updated Cookie Notice. Announced in by President Xi Jinping, a brand new double trade corridor is set to reopen channels between China and its neighbours in the west: most notably Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe.
The project has proved vast, expensive and controversial. Four years after it was first unveiled, the question remains:. One strong incentive is that Trans-Eurasian trade infrastructure could bolster poorer countries to the south of China, as well as boost global trade. Domestic regions are also expected to benefit — especially the less-developed border regions in the west of the country, such as Xinjiang.
Among domestic markets set to gain from future trade are Chinese companies — such as those in transport and telecoms — which now look poised to grow into global brands.
Chinese manufacturing also stands to gain. There's no doubt that China is growing into a geopolitical heavyweight, stepping into the breach left by the United States on matters of free trade and climate change. He explains: "The superpower status the US has achieved is to a great extent grounded on the security blanket it offered to its allies. Geopolitically, China decided a long time ago that security was too expensive an offer to make. Instead, this new superpower may offer connectivity.
If combined with enhanced global connectivity, China's enormous gravity could become an even more meaningful engine for the global economy," Liu adds.
Chinese companies are already behind several energy projects, including oil and gas pipelines between China and Russia, Kazakhstan and Myanmar. Roads and infrastructure projects are also underway in Ethiopia, Kenya, Laos and Thailand. China's growing influence is a concern for nations whose political interests do not always align with Beijing's," explains Paul Haenle, director of the Carnegie-Tsinghua Centre for Global Policy. But before we spend shareholders' money, which is really the taxpayers' money, we have three requirements.
What were these? The new trade route would have to promote growth, be socially acceptable and abide by environmental laws, Jin said. How well the project fares against these three criteria has yet to be seen. The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum. While nations such as China, India and Brazil produce a lot of the world's total CO2 emissions, they are also leading the way in a renewable energy transition.
I accept. What you need to know. East to west Learn more. Most Popular. More on the agenda. Forum in focus. Global Alliance speeds up international trade — unlocking unprecedented investment and growth benefits. Read more about this project. Explore context. Explore the latest strategic trends, research and analysis. This article is part of the Annual Meeting of the New Champions. Have you read?
What can the New Silk Road do for global trade?OpinionOpinion and commentary from the Holmes Report. PodcastsThe Holmes Report's Echo Chamber PR show lifts the lid on key stories and trends. VideosLatest video interviews and campaigns from the Holmes Report. Premium ContentLong-form journalism that analyzes the issues, challenges and opportunities facing the business and practice of PR. AnalysisIndustry-leading analysis of the PR stories that matter.
Bell PottingerExclusive coverage and insight into the stunning scandal and implosion at iconic UK PR firm Bell Pottinger. DavosCoverage of the World Economic Forum in Davos.
CreativityCreative work, trends and views from the global public relations industry. TechnologyOur coverage of key technology PR trends and challenges from around the world of digital communications. ConsumerFrom brand marketing to conscious consumerism, coverage of key marketing and PR trends worldwide. CorporateCoverage of global corporate reputation and communications news and trends, from the leading online corporate PR news website The Holmes Report.
Global PR Agency RankingsThe Holmes Report's definitive global benchmark of global PR agency size and growth, new for 2017.
Global Communications ReportThe key global benchmark of PR agency rankings, industry size and trends, new for 2016 onwards. Agencies of the YearThe Holmes Report's annual selections for PR Agencies of the Year, across all of the world's major markets. Influence 100The world's 100 most powerful corporate communicators. Innovator 25The Holmes Report profiles marketing and communications innovators from across North America, EMEA and Asia-Pac. Global Creative IndexThe most creatively awarded PR campaigns and agencies in the world.
Creativity in PRIn-depth annual research into the PR industry's efforts to raise creative standards. The Holmes Report Book The Holmes Report comprises an annual book of the best agencies, campaigns, influencers and stories of the year.
SABRE AwardsThe world's biggest PR awards programme, dedicated to benchmarking the best PR work from across the globe. PRovoke17: Global PR SummitThe biggest PR conference of the year, a high-level forum designed for senior practitioners to address the critical issues that matter most. In2 Innovation SummitExploring the innovation and disruption that is redefining influence and engagement.
RoundtablesBringing together in-house comms leaders with PR firms to discuss critical global issues. Sponsored Content Content from the Holmes Report's premium partners. In conversation with Arun Sudhaman, the duo also offer up some random PR predictions for the Echo Chamber in 2018, looking at such areas as PR creativity, agency infractions and holding company growth.
Innovator 25 2017: PR Game Changers In The Americas Aarti Shah 27 Nov 2017 Holmes Report identifies 25 professionals reshaping the marketing and comms world across the America. Innovator 25 2017: Changemakers Reshaping EMEA Marcomms World Arun Sudhaman 13 Nov 2017 Holmes Report identifies 25 professionals reshaping the marketing and comms world in EMEA, and finds.
Load 3 More Intelligence and insight from across the PR world. This is a premium phone line service and your reading will be paid for by the cost of your call and calls will end after 30 minutes. Moon Predictions Ireland is happy to announce that they provide a Live Premium Rate Line service.I have been trying to increase the number of reviews I have for my sight lately. Thanks for the help. I think I need to restructure the timing.
Thanks for the tips. You really broke it down well. It comes don to timing and word of mouth.
BMW Map Data
People are influenced by people in order to build trust. This is stellar stuff. I love the idea of asking for something as simple as a review during that crucial positive state. Nice writeup and tips. Steve, I love the post. I troll for good tips like these all the time but had not seen any of the ones you noted in your post so it is like finding the end of the rainbow.
And the metrics that are shared really highlight the effectiveness of these tools. Thank you, DougSo many great tips, and take aways.
Such valuable insights, thank you Steve. Such a powerful article that will help my business so much more by applying these 5 tips you generously shared. Though I will be then looking to implement the others soon after.
Great examples make this post all the better, thanks again Steve. Great point about treating your customers like people and not metrics. I have found this to be true as well. Everyone wants to connect with someone so why not reach out to your customers.
Stop guessing what's working, and start seeing it for yourself. Put Crazy Egg to the test for free for 30 days. The Daily Egg Search for: Want to make your site better.
Steve Young Steve Young is the Director of Product Marketing for SmartShoot, a marketplace that connects businesses and individuals with freelance photographers and videographers from around the world. Recommended Article Low Conversions.
Conquer Your Fears by Learning How It Can Boos. Fix These Nine Mistakes. SPEAK YOUR MIND Cancel Your email address will not be published. Once again, thanks for the no b.
It was nice for a change. Robyn Reply Bizutik says: I really like your article. Reply Lalitha says: Good ideas here. Reply Jenni K says: Super Great article.
Israel-Palestinian Peace Process: The Middle East Road Map
Reply ian says: This is amazing!!. Reply Tom Haarlander says: This was exactly what I needed. Reply Ammar says: Great article. Reply Roger says: Steve, great post. Reply Andres says: Beautiful summary.The driving tour was perfect for us. We had the security of your expertise and guidance, but we had all the freedom we wanted since we were driving ourselves.
We were a bit apprehensive about driving in Iceland, but it turned out to be very easy and enjoyable. The scenery was awesome and the driving distances were very manageable. I'm glad we added extra time in Reykjavik. I would have enjoyed even more time there. All of your materials were well prepared and fun to read. The Iceland Road Guide is spectacular. I am still reading it.
Together with Alexandra at Nordic Visitor, we planned a 10-day trip around Iceland. From the very first contact, Alexandra was extremely helpful and creative in responding to our wishes.
MIDDLE EAST: The Road Map to Peace
The entire (interactive) planning process ran very smoothly. All the information sent to us (by regular mail and email) before the start of the trip was very informative. From the moment we landed in Iceland, everything was again very well organized. The Road Atlas that the company provides is a great asset. Hotels and guesthouses were of high quality and everywhere we went, the food was great.
The pre-booked excursions were very well-organized too. In general, we noticed that Nordic Visitor has an excellent network of hotels and guesthouses, and of companies for local excursions (glacier hike, whale watching, where, by the way, we got a great show by one whale).
Thank you Alexandra and thank you Nordic Visitor. You are a great company to work with. Too bad Nordic Visitor has no control over the Icelandic weather. My husband and I traveled through Nordic Visitor for a full circle Iceland Activity Tour. We could not have asked for a better trip. The wonderful reviews helped us decide to book with Nordic Visitor and I wanted to share the positives of our vacation planned through Nordic Visitor.
My husband and I had never traveled out of the United States before and wanted a trip that was well planned by locals. I feel that our tour allowed us to see much of the beautiful country. Iceland in general, is a very travel friendly country and I recommend a trip there to anyone who appreciates vast interesting landscapes, friendly people, and a whole lot more. Thank you Nordic Visitor for the wonderful vacation.
This was a trip of a lifetime for us. All of the accommodations were great. There was enough time in each day that we were never rushed to get to the next place.